Speaking Trips on DevOps, Kubernetes, Jenkins

This 2nd half of the year speaking season is starting and you’ll find me speaking about DevOps, Kubernetes, Jenkins,… at

If you organize a conference and would like me to give a talk in 2018 you can find me @csanchez.

Screen Shot 2017-08-24 at 17.07.45.png

Running a JVM in a Container Without Getting Killed

No pun intended

The JDK 8u131 has backported a nice feature in JDK 9, which is the ability of the JVM to detect how much memory is available when running inside a Docker container.

I have talked multiple times about the problems running a JVM inside a container, how it will default in most cases to a max heap of 1/4 of the host memory, not the container.

For example in my machine

$ docker run -m 100MB openjdk:8u121 java -XshowSettings:vm -version
VM settings:
    Max. Heap Size (Estimated): 444.50M
    Ergonomics Machine Class: server
    Using VM: OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM

Wait, WAT? I set a container memory of 100MB and my JVM sets a max heap of 444M ? It is very likely that it is going to cause the Kernel to kill my JVM at some point.

Let’s try the JDK 8u131 with the experimental option -XX:+UseCGroupMemoryLimitForHeap

$ docker run -m 100MB openjdk:8u131 java \
  -XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions \
  -XX:+UseCGroupMemoryLimitForHeap \
  -XshowSettings:vm -version
VM settings:
    Max. Heap Size (Estimated): 44.50M
    Ergonomics Machine Class: server
    Using VM: OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM

Ok this makes more sense, the JVM was able to detect the container has only 100MB and set the max heap to 44M.

Let’s try in a bigger container

$ docker run -m 1GB openjdk:8u131 java \
  -XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions \
  -XX:+UseCGroupMemoryLimitForHeap \
  -XshowSettings:vm -version
VM settings:
    Max. Heap Size (Estimated): 228.00M
    Ergonomics Machine Class: server
    Using VM: OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM

Mmm, now the container has 1GB but JVM is only using 228M as max heap. Can we optimize this even more, given that nothing else other than the JVM is running in the container? Yes we can!

$ docker run -m 1GB openjdk:8u131 java \
  -XX:+UnlockExperimentalVMOptions \
  -XX:+UseCGroupMemoryLimitForHeap \
  -XX:MaxRAMFraction=1 -XshowSettings:vm -version
VM settings:
    Max. Heap Size (Estimated): 910.50M
    Ergonomics Machine Class: server
    Using VM: OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM

Using -XX:MaxRAMFraction we are telling the JVM to use available memory/MaxRAMFraction as max heap. Using -XX:MaxRAMFraction=1 we are using almost all the available memory as max heap.

Running Docker containers as non root

Running containers as root is a bad practice, but many Docker images available in the Docker Hub have the user set to root by default, so what can we do about it?

TL;DR Use -u 65534 -w /tmp -e _JAVA_OPTIONS=-Duser.home=/tmp for a typical Java image, plus any tool specific environment variable needed

Option 1 (build time):

Create a new derived image that creates a new user and changes the default to that one


FROM openjdk:8-jdk
RUN useradd --create-home -s /bin/bash user
WORKDIR /home/user
USER user

This is simple, but forces us to republish all these derived images, creating a maintenance nightmare.

Option 2 (runtime):

Use docker run -u option to choose what user to run the container as

docker run -ti --rm -u 1000 openjdk:8-jdk

This may work, but we can hit some issues, let’s see

$docker run -ti --rm -u 1000 openjdk:8-jdk git clone https://github.com/jenkinsci/docker
fatal: could not create work tree dir 'docker'.: Permission denied

Well, we obviously don’t have permissions to write to the default workdir, let’s fix it using -w and a dir that is writable, for instance /tmp

$ docker run -ti --rm -u 1000 -w /tmp openjdk:8-jdk git clone https://github.com/jenkinsci/docker
Cloning into 'docker'...
remote: Counting objects: 1498, done.
remote: Total 1498 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 1498
Receiving objects: 100% (1498/1498), 287.46 KiB | 0 bytes/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (772/772), done.
Checking connectivity... done.
fatal: unable to look up current user in the passwd file: no such user

 

Git does not like being run as an user that does not exist, so we need to pick one of the existing users

UPDATE: git 2.6.5+ removes this requirement, so we can run as any user even if it is not in the passwd file. For previous versions setting the GIT_COMMITTER_NAME and GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL environment variables also works.

$ docker run -ti --rm -u 1000 -w /tmp openjdk:8-jdk cat /etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
bin:x:2:2:bin:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/usr/sbin/nologin
sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin
man:x:6:12:man:/var/cache/man:/usr/sbin/nologin
lp:x:7:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/usr/sbin/nologin
mail:x:8:8:mail:/var/mail:/usr/sbin/nologin
news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/usr/sbin/nologin
uucp:x:10:10:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/usr/sbin/nologin
proxy:x:13:13:proxy:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
www-data:x:33:33:www-data:/var/www:/usr/sbin/nologin
backup:x:34:34:backup:/var/backups:/usr/sbin/nologin
list:x:38:38:Mailing List Manager:/var/list:/usr/sbin/nologin
irc:x:39:39:ircd:/var/run/ircd:/usr/sbin/nologin
gnats:x:41:41:Gnats Bug-Reporting System (admin):/var/lib/gnats:/usr/sbin/nologin
nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
systemd-timesync:x:100:103:systemd Time Synchronization,,,:/run/systemd:/bin/false
systemd-network:x:101:104:systemd Network Management,,,:/run/systemd/netif:/bin/false
systemd-resolve:x:102:105:systemd Resolver,,,:/run/systemd/resolve:/bin/false
systemd-bus-proxy:x:103:106:systemd Bus Proxy,,,:/run/systemd:/bin/false
messagebus:x:104:108::/var/run/dbus:/bin/false

The user nobody:65534 could be a good candidate, and as it is present in the default debian and alpine Docker images it will be present also in most images in the hub.

$ docker run -ti --rm -u 65534 -w /tmp openjdk:8-jdk \
git clone https://github.com/jenkinsci/docker
Cloning into 'docker'...
remote: Counting objects: 1498, done.
remote: Total 1498 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 1498
Receiving objects: 100% (1498/1498), 287.46 KiB | 0 bytes/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (772/772), done.
Checking connectivity... done.

Ok, that worked! Now let’s try to run something else, like a maven build


$ docker run -ti --rm -u 65534 -w /tmp maven:3 \
bash -c "git clone https://github.com/jenkinsci/kubernetes-plugin.git && \
cd kubernetes-plugin && mvn package"
touch: cannot touch ‘/root/.m2/copy_reference_file.log’: Permission denied
Can not write to /root/.m2/copy_reference_file.log. Wrong volume permissions?

This means entering in the domain of each tool and checking how to configure it. The maven docker image instructs us to use MAVEN_CONFIG and pass -Duser.home otherwise we would get an error [ERROR] Could not create local repository at /nonexistent/.m2/repository -> [Help 1]

Here is the working solution


$ docker run -ti --rm -u 65534 -w /tmp -e MAVEN_CONFIG=/tmp maven:3 \
bash -c "git clone https://github.com/jenkinsci/kubernetes-plugin.git && \
cd kubernetes-plugin && mvn -Duser.home=/tmp package"

Can we generalize this a bit for other Java apps? yes! By using the env var _JAVA_OPTIONS we can pass the user.home property to any Java app.

$ docker run -ti --rm -u 65534 -w /tmp -e _JAVA_OPTIONS=-Duser.home=/tmp \
-e MAVEN_CONFIG=/tmp maven:3 \
bash -c "git clone https://github.com/jenkinsci/kubernetes-plugin.git && \
cd kubernetes-plugin && mvn package"

 

JavaOne: From Monolith to Docker Distributed Applications

I’ll be speaking again this year at JavaOne: From Monolith to Docker Distributed Applications, sharing our experience running the Jenkins platform on Docker containers using Apache Mesos.

You can also find me in the CloudBees booth in the exhibitors area.

Docker is revolutionizing the way people think about applications and deployments. It provides a simple way to run and distribute Linux containers for a variety of use cases, from lightweight virtual machines to complex distributed microservice architectures.

But migrating an existing Java application to a distributed microservice architecture is no easy task, requiring a shift in the software development, networking, and storage to accommodate the new architecture.

This presentation provides insights into the experience of the speaker and his colleagues in creating a Jenkins platform based on distributed Docker containers running on Apache Mesos and Marathon and applicable to all types of applications, especially Java- and JVM-based ones.

Next Events: DevOpsPro Vilnius, MesosCon, Boulder JAM & Docker meetups, Open DevOps Milan

I’ll be traveling in the following weeks, speaking at

DevOpsPro in Vilnius, Lithuania: From Monolith to Docker Distributed Applications (May 26th)

MesosCon North America in Denver, CO: CI and CD at Scale: Scaling Jenkins with Docker and Apache Mesos (June 1st)

Jenkins Area Meetup and Docker Boulder meetup in Boulder, CO: CI and CD at Scale: Scaling Jenkins with Docker and Apache Mesos (June 2nd)

Open DevOps in Milan, Italy: Continuous Delivery and the DevOps Way (June 22nd)

If you are around just ping me!

Downloading artifacts from a Maven repository with Ansible

AnsibleLogoAn example of downloading artifacts from a Maven repository using Ansible, including a prebuilt Docker image.

Prerequisites

Install JDK and Maven using existing Ansible modules

ansible-galaxy install geerlingguy.java
ansible-galaxy install https://github.com/silpion/ansible-maven.git
- hosts: localhost

 roles:
 - { role: ansible-maven }
 - { role: geerlingguy.java }

 vars:
 java_packages:
 - java-1.7.0-openjdk

Example

From mvn.yml, download any number of Maven artifacts optionally from different repositories

- hosts: localhost

 vars:
 mvn_artifacts:
 - id: org.apache.maven:maven-core:2.2.1:jar:sources
 dest: /tmp/test.jar
 # params: -U # update snapshots
 # repos:
 # - http://repo1.maven.apache.org/maven2
 
 tasks:
 - name: copy maven artifacts
 command: mvn {{ item.params | default('') }} org.apache.maven.plugins:maven-dependency-plugin:get -Dartifact={{ item.id }} -Ddest={{ item.dest }} -Dtransitive=false -Pansible-maven -DremoteRepositories={{ item.repos | default(['http://repo1.maven.apache.org/maven2']) | join(",") }}
 with_items: mvn_artifacts

Docker

An image with Ansible, JDK and Maven preinstalled is available at csanchez/ansible-maven.

Scaling Docker with Kubernetes

kubernetesI have published a new article on InfoQ, Scaling Docker with Kubernetes, where I describe the Kubernetes project and how it allows to run Docker containers across multiple hosts.

Kubernetes is an open source project to manage a cluster of Linux containers as a single system, managing and running Docker containers across multiple hosts, offering co-location of containers, service discovery and replication control.

Included in the article there is an example of scaling Jenkins in a master – multiple slaves architecture, where the slaves are running in Kubernetes. When I finally find the time I will implement a Jenkins Kubernetes plugin that would handle the scaling automatically.